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By Richard Pipes

With surprising authority and readability, Richard Pipes has fused a lifetime’s scholarship right into a unmarried concentrated heritage of Communism, from its hopeful delivery as a idea to its depressing loss of life as a convention. At its center, the ebook is a heritage of the Soviet Union, the main accomplished reorganization of human society ever tried via a countryside. this can be the tale of the way the agitation of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, mid-nineteenth-century ecu thinkers and writers, ended in an exceptional and negative global faith that introduced down a amazing empire, fed on the area in clash, and left in its wake a devastation whose complete expenses can merely now be tabulated.

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COMMUNIST thought AND software 1. Capital, vol. I, bankruptcy xxxii. go back to textual content. 2. okay. Marx and F. Engels, accrued Works, vol. III (New York, 1975), 393. go back to textual content. three. George Lukacs, background and sophistication attention (Cambridge, Mass. , 1971), 315. go back to textual content. four. German Ideology, in Marx and Engels, gathered Works, vol. V (New York, 1976), forty seven. go back to textual content. 2. LENINISM 1. Naum Jasny, The Socialized Agriculture of the USSR (Stanford, 1949), 145–46. go back to textual content. 2. Richard Pipes, A Concise heritage of the Russian Revolution (New York, 1995), 121n. go back to textual content. three. V. I. Lenin, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, fifth ed. (Moscow, 1958–65), vol. forty-one, 383. go back to textual content. four. Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York, 1990), 696. go back to textual content. five. L. N. Kritsman, Geroicheskii interval velikoi russkoi revoliutsii (Moscow, 1926), 166. go back to textual content. 6. Isaac Steinberg, within the Workshop of the Revolution (London, 1955), one hundred forty five. go back to textual content. 7. Lenin, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, vol. 37, 39–41. go back to textual content. eight. Richard Pipes, ed. , The Unknown Lenin (New Haven, Conn. , 1996), 50. go back to textual content. nine. A. G. Latyshev, Rassekrechennyi Lenin (Moscow, 1996), forty. This passage was once passed over from Lenin’s Polnoe sobranie sochinenii (Complete Works), fifth ed. go back to textual content. 10. Lenin, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, vol. forty two, 1. go back to textual content. eleven. Clara Zetkin, recollections of Lenin (London, 1929), 20. go back to textual content. three. STALIN AND AFTER 1. Pipes, Unknown Lenin, 152–53. go back to textual content. 2. Mikhail Heller and Aleksandr Nekrich, Utopia in energy: The historical past of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the current (New York, 1986), 201. go back to textual content. three. Alec Nove, An financial historical past of the USSR (London, 1988), 208. go back to textual content. four. Nicholas Werth in Stéphane Courtois, ed. , The Black publication of Communism (Cambridge, Mass. , 1999), 153, a hundred and fifty five. go back to textual content. five. Ibid. , 162. go back to textual content. 6. Nove, monetary heritage, 243. go back to textual content. 7. Werth in Courtois, The Black ebook of Communism, 159, 167. go back to textual content. eight. M. B. Olcott in Russian evaluate, vol. XL, no. 2 (1981), 122, 136. go back to textual content. nine. Hoy (Havana), February 24, 1963, mentioned in Theodore Draper, Castroism: concept and perform (New York, 1965), 217–18. go back to textual content. 10. Alfred Mirek, Krasnyi mirazh (Moscow, 2000), 265–66. go back to textual content. eleven. Vladimir Naumov in William Taubman et al. , eds. , Nikita Khrushchev (New Haven, Conn. , 2000), ninety. go back to textual content. 12. Sheila Fitzpatrick, daily Stalinism (New York, 1999), 127. go back to textual content. thirteen. Bertram D. Wolfe, ed. , Khrushchev and Stalin’s Ghost (New York, 1957), 124. go back to textual content. 14. David Remnick, Lenin’s Tomb (New York, 1993), 406. go back to textual content. 15. Michael Voslensky, Nomenklatura: The Soviet Ruling category (Garden urban, N. Y. , 1984), sixty one. go back to textual content. sixteen. Remnick, Lenin’s Tomb, 172–73. go back to textual content. 17. the recent York instances, August 15, 2000, p. A7. go back to textual content. 18. R. G. Pikhoia, Sovetskii Soiuz: Istoriia vlasti, 1945–1991 (Moscow, 1998), one hundred forty. go back to textual content. 19. Sistema ispravitel’no-trudovykh lagerei v SSSR, 1923–1960 (Moscow, 1998), forty eight. go back to textual content. 20. Nove, monetary heritage, a hundred and eighty. go back to textual content.

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